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Guide to PAS 68:2013 standard


PAS 68:2013 is the UK standard and the security industry benchmark for Hostile Vehicle Mitigation (HVM) solutions.
PAS 68:2013 is a Publicly Available Specification (PAS) for collision testing and evaluation of products for protection against hostile vehicles. Such products are bollards and blockers used for security and anti-terrorism purposes.
PAS 68:2013 specification has become the de facto test standard for aggressive vehicle protection (HVM). For individuals who are not involved with physical safety, PAS 68:2013 is either completely unknown or not fully understood. It seems that understanding of the standard has increased due to the increase in the use of vehicles as weapons. As a result, the need for protective equipment against aggressive vehicles has increased.
Not all people understand PAS 68 and other impact testing standards such as IWA 14. they can be confusing and as a result, we decided to make a handy complete manual to explain the impact test standards and their history.


TISO Road blockers and bollards that were tested for PAS 68:2013




So, let's know more about PAS 68:2013 standard

What is PAS? PAS is an open-source specification and PAS 68:2013 is one of the many standards controlled by the British Standards Institute (BSI). PAS 68 was developed in 2005 and became the first British impact test specification. Since its initial development, PAS 68 has gone through several versions, the most recent being 2013. Equally important is its sister standard PAS 69, which supports PAS 68 in ensuring the installation efficiency of products with a high level of safety. PAS 69 contains installation instructions for products with a high level of protection, as well as recommendations to consider when selecting and installing a product that has been tested for impact strength.

PAS 68:2013 rating covers a wide range of products that can vary depending on the level of security required.
Factors such as vehicle types, impact angles, speed, impact penetration and debris dispersion help you decide which PAS 68:2013 rated product is best for your needs, this is often determined by conducting a “vehicle dynamic assessment” (which is usually done by an accredited security or counter-terrorism advisor). For example, you may have one site where you need protection from a vehicle traveling at 30 mph, in another you need to protection from the same type of vehicle traveling at 50 mph. In each case, you will need to select a PAS 68:2013 rated product that meets these requirements.
The easiest way to demonstrate this is to show you how the PAS 68:2013 performance rating is rated. You may have seen a similar string of letters, symbols and numbers when browsing impact tested products - V/7500[N2]/48/90:-1.9/5.3
On initial inspection, it may not make much sense, but once you have an understanding of what each section means, it will become straight forward to interpret.


V 7500 [N2] 48 90 -1.9 5.3
Test Method
Machine type Speed of
Penetration Scattering of debris
Weight of
Vehicle class


Detailed explanation of each components of the rating

Test Method V/7200[N2B]/80/90:0.7 First, we have a test method, in this case it is "V" for a vehicle, which means that the product has been tested using a real vehicle; this is the most common method you will find.
Other test methods that you may come across are "D" for design when the test is simulated. Finally, you have a “P” for the pendulum (although this is only suitable for testing bollards at lower energy levels).
Machine type V/7500[N2]/80/90:-1.9/5.3 This is the mass and type of vehicle. Weight is measured in kg.
In our example, it was tested on a car weighing 7500 kg, and (N3) denotes the vehicle category.
A detailed breakdown by different vehicle types can be seen below.
Speed test V/7500[N2]/80/90:-1.9/5.3 Next in the performance rating is the test speed, measured in kilometers per hour (km / h). So, looking at our approximate rating, it was tested at a speed of 80 km / h.
Impact angle V/7500[N2]/80/90:-1.9/5.3 This is followed by the test impact angle, which is usually 90 °..
Penetration V/7500[N2]/80/90:-1.9/5.3 The following section lists the impact object penetration obtained during the crash test.
This measurement indicates how far (in meters) the load-bearing part of the vehicle under test has traveled beyond the rear surface of the product under test before it comes to a complete stop. In our example, the bollard reached a penetration depth of -1.0 m.
The level of penetration that is considered acceptable depends on where the perimeter line is in relation to the protected object. Opposition is the distance between the protected asset and the line of defense.
Scattering of debris V/7500[N2]/80/90:-1.9/5.3 And finally, we have the distance of dispersal of large debris. This measurement indicates the furthest point that debris weighing more than 25 kg passed beyond the test object during the test. In the case of our example rating, it had a dispersion distance of 24.1.
This figure is to help security engineers visualize the test and should not be the focus of end users. This has caused some confusion in the past with the result that IWA 14 did not include dispersion distance measurements.


Test vehicle classifications - illustration

car of m1 class
Weight: 1500 kg
16 kph/32 kph/48 kph/
64 kph/80 kph/96 kph/112 kph
Class: M1
day cab vehicle of n2b class
Day cab vehicle
Weight: 7500 kg
16 kph/32 kph/48 kph/
64 kph
Class: N2
4x4 pickup truck of n1g class
4x4 Pickup Truck
Weight: 2500 kg
16 kph/32 kph/48 kph/
64 kph/80 kph/96 kph/112 kph
Class: N1G
day cab vehicle of n3c class
Day cab vehicle
Weight: 18000 kg
16 kph/32 kph/48 kph/
64 kph/80 kph
Class: N2
day cab vehicle of n1 class
Day cab vehicle
Weight: 3500 kg
16 kph/32 kph/48 kph/
64 kph/80 kph/96 kph
Class: N1
day cab vehicle of n3d class
Day cab vehicle
Weight: 32000 kg
16 kph/32 kph/48 kph/
64 kph/80 kph
Class: N3


Measuring of penetration

VSB Reference Point is rear face of VSB.
The red line marks the zero point when measuring the level of penetration of large debris. This is one of the parameters that distinguish PAS 68:2013 from other standards (IWA test, for example), IWA standard keeps track of debris penetration from the front of the blocker (blue line).


chart of road blocker

PAS68:2013 and ASTM F2656
IWA 14-1:2013



Now that you know a little more about PAS 68:2013, you may be wondering about other impact test standards are available. The other most common impact rating you will see listed on our high security bollards and blockers is the IWA 14 standard. The International Workshop Agreement (IWA), issued in 2014, follows a structure similar to PAS 68:2013 with two key differences. First, penetration measurements are taken from the front of the test product, not the back. Secondly, the scattering of debris is not recorded. We will look at this rating in more detail in the next tutorial. The last rating you may come across is DOS, the American rating. It has now been replaced by ASTM (American Society for Testing Materials).


Summary table of all certified bollards and road blockers

HVM type Model Standard* Perfomance rating Vehicle
Impact force,
Automatic (hydraulic) bollard RB348 ASTM F2656-07 M30, P1 (-1,2m) 50 6 800 -1.2 679.9
Automatic (hydraulic) bollard RB342 ASTM F2656-07 M50, P1 (-0,6m) 80 6 800 -0.6 1 845.0
Removable bollard RB343-68 ASTM F2656/F2656M-15 IWA 14-1:2013 80 7 200 3.8 1 841.0
M50, P2 (3,8m) Bollard V/7200 [N2B]/80/90:4.1 80 7 200 4.1
Fixed bollards (triple bollards set) RB345-09-S ASTM F2656/F2656M-20 C750, P1 (0,7m) 80 7 200 0.7 1 789.0
IWA 14-1:2013 Bollard V/7200[N2B]/80/90:0.7 80 7 200 0.7
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker | Cyclope series RB320-02 ASTM F2656/F2656M-15 C740, P1(-1,7m) 64 7 200 -1.7 1 181.0
IWA 14-1:2013 Blocker V/7200 [N2B]/64/90:-0,2 64 7 200 -0.2
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker | Speedbump series RB359-04 ASTM F2656/F2656M-15 M30, P1 (-0,7m) 48 7 200 -0.7 664.0
IWA 14-1:2013 Blocker V/7200 [N2B]/48/90:-0,3 48 7 200 0.3
Automatic (hydraulic) mobile road blocker | Speedbump series RB358-08 ASTM F2656/F2656M-18a M30, P2 (4,66m) 48 7 200 4.6 673.0
IWA 14-1:2013 Blocker V/7200(N2B)/48/90:5,3 48 7 200 5.3
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker RB313 ASTM F 2656-07 M30, P1 (-2,1m) 50 6 800 -2.1 656.0
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker RB333 ASTM F 2656-07 M50, P1 (-2,4m) 80 6 800 -2.4 1 843.5
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker RB313-01 PAS 68:2013 Blocker V/7500[N2]/48/90:-1.9/0.0 48 7 500 -1.9 689.3
IWA 14-1:2013 Blocker V/7200[N2A]/48/90:-0.7 48 7 500 -1.7
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker RB323-01 PAS 68:2013 Blocker V/7500[N3]/64/90:-1.5/0.0 64 7 500 -1.5 1 139.0
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker RB333-01 PAS 68:2013 Blocker V/7500[N3]/80/90:-1.0/24.1 80 7 500 -1.0 1 868.0
IWA 14-1:2013 Blocker V/7200[N3C]/80/90:-0.1 80 7 500 -0.1

If you still have questions regarding the classification of international standards or would like to know the price of our certified bollards and road blockers, then leave your request below.