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Guide to ASTM F2656 standard


ASTM F2656 means the American standard for determining the level of perimeter protection using safety barriers: road barriers and bollards.
The American Barrier Test Methodology was first published in 1985 by the US Diplomatic Security Administration to assess the strength of perimeter barriers and gates when hit by vehicles. Since then, the number and scale of attacks with vehicles with or without explosives has increased worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to consider a wide range of possible threats, for example attack on an object with a vehicle, attack by various vehicles at high speed, as well as possible defenses to prevent intrusion to the territory of the object. In addition, there are different criteria for evaluating access control for institutions, as well as requirements for the aesthetic appeal of access and security measures.
Despite the fact that ASTM F2656 was created by US regulatory authorities, this standard is applicable in other countries.
The ASTM F2656 standard serves as the basis for many standards that were formed in other countries later.


TISO Road blockers and bollards that were tested for ASTM F2656






So, let's know more about ASTM F2656 STANDARD

In 2007, the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) first published the F2656 Vehicle Impact Test Method for Perimeter Barriers.

In 2003, the US Department of State's Office of Diplomatic Security issued a new standard (SD-STD-02.01, Revision A) for Test Methodology for Perimeter Barriers.
The standard has been changed for several reasons. The main reason for the change was the limited distance, which excluded the use of appropriate protective devices at the relevant sites, which did not meet the high test requirements, namely the prevention of the possibility of penetration by a vehicle into the territory of the object by more than 1M. In this regard, the amended standard provides for the range of penetration of the vehicle into the territory of the object by only 1 m. Also, the ASTM F2656 standard is one of the few that includes the passenger safety parameters provided for by the normative act.

How to evaluate the rating road blockers and bollards according to ASTM F2656?

Upon completion of the test, deformation of the safety barrier, vehicle penetration range, and damage to both the test item and the test vehicle are documented based on measurement results, instrument readings and photographs. Based on this data, the security barrier is assigned a corresponding protection class. Key indicators such as the type of car (its mass) and speed are encrypted into a code (for example, M50, C740, RU50, etc.). In addition to this, an important indicator in the rating is the penetration range of large particles. The penetration range is encrypted in the symbols P1, P2, P3 and P4. Each of the codes corresponds to a certain distance of penetration of large particles (over 25 kg) outside the blocking device (see table below).

Impact Condition Designations

Test Vehicle/Minimum Test Inertial Vehicle, kg [lbm] Nominal Minimum Test Velocity, km/h [mph] Kinetic Energy, KJ [ft-kips] Condition Designation
Small passenger car (SC)
1100 [2430]
50 [30] 106[78] SC30
65[40] 179[131] SC40
80[50] 271[205] SC50
100[60] 424[295] SC60
Full-size Saloon (FS)
2100 [4630]
50[30] 203[37] FS30
65[40] 342[247] FS40
80[50] 519[387] FS50
100[60] 810[557] FS60
Pickup truck (PU)
2300 [5070]
50[30] 222[164] PU30
65[40] 375[273] PU40
80[50] 568[426] PU50
100[60] 887[613] PU60
Standard Test Truck (M)
6800 [15 000]
50[30] 656[451] M30
65[40] 1110[802] M40
80[50] 1680[1250] M50
Class 7 Cabover (C7)
7200 [15873]
50[30] 673[497] C730
65[40] 1199[884] C740
80[50] 1872[1381] C750
Heavy goods vehicle (H)
29 500 [65 000]
50[30] 2850[1950] H30
65[40] 4810[3470] H40
80[50] 7280[5430] H50

Penetration ratings

Designation Dynamic penetration rating
P1 ≤ 1 m (3.3 ft)
P2 1.01 to 7 m (3.31 to 23.0 ft)
P3 7.01 to 30 m (23.1 to 98.4 ft)
P4 30 m (98 ft) or greater

Note: VSB with a penetration rating of P4 will not be included in the DOD Anti-Ram Vehicle Barrier List.

On the pictures below, you can see the difference in penetration measurements during testing to ASTM F2656, IWA 14-1 and PAS 68.


chart of road blocker

PAS68:2013 and ASTM F2656
IWA 14-1:2013


Test vehicle classifications - illustration

car of m1 class
Small passenger car
Weight: 1100 kg
50 kph/65 kph/48 kph/
80 kph/100 kph
Class: SC
day cab vehicle of n2b class
Multi-passenger passenger car
Weight: 2100 kg
50 kph/65 kph/48 kph/
80 kph/100 kph
Class: FS
4x4 pickup truck of n1g class
4x4 Pickup Truck
Weight: 2300 kg
50 kph/65 kph/80 kph/100 kph
Class: PU
day cab vehicle of n3c class
Medium-duty truck
Weight: 6800 kg
50 kph/65 kph/80 kph
Class: M
day cab vehicle of n1 class
Medium-duty truck
Weight: 7200 kg
50 kph/65 kph/80 kph
Class: C7
day cab vehicle of n3d class
Heavy good vehicle truck
Weight: 29500 kg
50 kph/65 kph/80 kph
Class: H


DOD Anti-Ram Vehicle Barrier List

Another authoritative rating for barrier manufacturers is DOD Anti-Ram Vehicle Barrier List. The DoD list is an approved list of manufacturers that have shown that their equipment meets the stringent testing requirements for anti-ramming equipment and will function reliably against high speed vehicle attack.

The DOD barrier list is an approved list of tested barriers by the protective design centre (PDC). All TiSO vehicle mitigation equipment has been extensively tested in accordance with ASTM and IWA standards to ensure that it meets the strict criteria required by the PDC for DoD approval.

The Protective Design Center (PDC) is the US military center of expertise for engineering services related to force protection and protective design. We provide engineering design and support services to the US military for both permanent and semi-permanent applications and to the DOD and other U.S. Government agencies to protect people and property assets against criminal and terrorist threats.

To be included in this list, the manufacturer must undergo an appropriate audit and the equipment must meet the highest quality criteria and international protection requirements. TiSO has met the required standard and are therefore now included in the approved lists.


What about other impact test standards?

Two other major standards that you will come across are PAS 68 and IWA. PAS 68, which has a lot in common with IWA 14, is a British test specification for reducing the danger of hostile vehicles and is fully explained in our detailed guide. The International Workshop Agreement (IWA), issued in 2014, follows a structure similar to PAS 68 with two key differences.
First, penetration measurements are taken from the front of the test product, not the back. Secondly, the scattering of debris is not recorded. We'll look at this rating in more detail in the next tutorial. Another standard you can also find is the CWA, which is a European agreement that combines the elements of PAS 68 and PAS 69. PAS 69 is a specification for the correct installation of impact tested products.


Summary table of all certified bollards and road blockers

HVM type Model Standard* Perfomance rating Vehicle
Impact force,
Automatic (hydraulic) bollard RB348 ASTM F2656-07 M30, P1 (-1,2m) 50 6 800 -1.2 679.9
Automatic (hydraulic) bollard RB342 ASTM F2656-07 M50, P1 (-0,6m) 80 6 800 -0.6 1 845.0
Removable bollard RB343-68 ASTM F2656/F2656M-15 IWA 14-1:2013 80 7 200 3.8 1 841.0
M50, P2 (3,8m) Bollard V/7200 [N2B]/80/90:4.1 80 7 200 4.1
Fixed bollards (triple bollards set) RB345-09-S ASTM F2656/F2656M-20 C750, P1 (0,7m) 80 7 200 0.7 1 789.0
IWA 14-1:2013 Bollard V/7200[N2B]/80/90:0.7 80 7 200 0.7
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker | Cyclope series RB320-02 ASTM F2656/F2656M-15 C740, P1(-1,7m) 64 7 200 -1.7 1 181.0
IWA 14-1:2013 Blocker V/7200 [N2B]/64/90:-0,2 64 7 200 -0.2
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker | Speedbump series RB359-04 ASTM F2656/F2656M-15 M30, P1 (-0,7m) 48 7 200 -0.7 664.0
IWA 14-1:2013 Blocker V/7200 [N2B]/48/90:-0,3 48 7 200 0.3
Automatic (hydraulic) mobile road blocker | Speedbump series RB358-08 ASTM F2656/F2656M-18a M30, P2 (4,66m) 48 7 200 4.6 673.0
IWA 14-1:2013 Blocker V/7200(N2B)/48/90:5,3 48 7 200 5.3
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker RB313 ASTM F 2656-07 M30, P1 (-2,1m) 50 6 800 -2.1 656.0
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker RB333 ASTM F 2656-07 M50, P1 (-2,4m) 80 6 800 -2.4 1 843.5
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker RB313-01 PAS 68:2013 Blocker V/7500[N2]/48/90:-1.9/0.0 48 7 500 -1.9 689.3
IWA 14-1:2013 Blocker V/7200[N2A]/48/90:-0.7 48 7 500 -1.7
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker RB323-01 PAS 68:2013 Blocker V/7500[N3]/64/90:-1.5/0.0 64 7 500 -1.5 1 139.0
Automatic (hydraulic) road blocker RB333-01 PAS 68:2013 Blocker V/7500[N3]/80/90:-1.0/24.1 80 7 500 -1.0 1 868.0
IWA 14-1:2013 Blocker V/7200[N3C]/80/90:-0.1 80 7 500 -0.1

If you still have questions regarding the classification of international standards or would like to know the price of our certified bollards and road blockers, then leave your request below.